material

Cost Effective Material Application & Design

EU emission regulations have forced the automotive industry to adopt lightweighting strategies through material selection and design. There has been an industry focus on body in white lightweighting through the use of innovative materials, however, with manufacturing costs proving difficult to swallow, OEM’s are exploring other options to reduce weight and meet CO2 emission requirements.

With this in mind, the Automotive Lightweight Interiors Congress has been engineered to explore the opportunities for lightweighting by adopting material and design strategies within the interior components. With emerging consumer trends such as infotainment, noise reduction, luxury textiles and electronic air conditioning, interior lightweighting strategies face the challenge of meeting customer expectations, safety standards whilst being financially viable.

KEY THEMES TO BE COVERED:

  • OEM STRATEGIES: How OEMs Are Balancing Costs, Carbon Emissions And Customer Expectations To Forge A Successful Interior Lightweighting Strategy
  • COST-DRIVEN SUPPLY CHAINS: Developing Partnership Strategies
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How bicycle is made – material, manufacture, history, used, components, dimensions, machine, History

Background

Bicycles are one of the world’s most popular modes of
transportation, with some 800 million bicycles outnumbering cars by two to
one. Bicycles are also the most energy-efficient vehicle—a cyclist
burns about 35 calories per mile (22 calories per km), while an automobile
burns 1,860 calories per mile (1,156 calories per km). Bicycles are used
not only for transportation, but for fitness, competition, and touring as
well. They come in myriad shapes and styles, including racing bikes,
all-terrain bikes, and stationary bicycles, as well as unicycles,
tricycles, and tandems.

History

As far back as 1490, Leonardo da Vinci had envisioned a machine remarkably
similar to the modern bicycle. Unfortunately, da Vinci did not attempt to
build the vehicle, nor were his sketches discovered until the 1960s. In
the late 1700s a Frenchman named Comte de Sivrac invented the Celerifere,
a crude wooden hobby horse made of two wheels and

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