Most car dealers who sell used vehicles must comply with the Federal Trade Commission’s (FTC’s) Used Car Rule. In fact, car dealers who sell, or offer for sale, more than five used vehicles in a 12-month period must comply with the Rule. Banks and financial institutions are exempt from the Rule, as are businesses that sell vehicles to their employees, and lessors who sell a leased vehicle to a lessee, an employee of the lessee, or a buyer found by the lessee.
The Used Car Rule applies in all states except Maine and Wisconsin. These two states are exempt because they have similar regulations that require dealers to post disclosures on used vehicles. The Rule applies in the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and American Samoa.
This booklet defines the Rule’s requirements, explains how to prepare and display the Buyers Guide, and offers a compliance checklist.
You must post a Buyers Guide before you display a vehicle for sale or let a customer inspect it for the purpose of buying it, even if the car is not fully prepared for delivery. You also must display a Buyers Guide on used vehicles for sale on your lot through consignment, power of attorney, or other agreement. At public auctions, dealers and the auction company must comply. The Rule does not apply at auctions that are closed to consumers.
Previously titled or not, any vehicle driven for purposes other than moving or test driving is considered a used vehicle, including light-duty vans, light-duty trucks, demonstrators, and program cars that meet the following specifications:
- a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of less than 8,500 pounds;
- a curb weight of less than 6,000 pounds; and
- a frontal area of less than 46 square feet.
Exceptions to the Rule are:
- any vehicle sold for scrap or parts if the dealer submits title documents to the appropriate state authority and obtains a salvage certification; and
- agricultural equipment.
A disclosure document that gives consumers important purchasing and warranty information, the Buyers Guide tells consumers:
- the major mechanical and electrical systems on the car, as well as some of the major problems that consumers should look out for;
- whether the vehicle is being sold “as is” or with a warranty;
- what percentage of the repair costs a dealer will pay under warranty;
- that oral promises are difficult to enforce;
- to get all promises in writing;
- to ask to have the car inspected by an independent mechanic before they buy;
- to get a vehicle history report and to visit ftc.gov/usedcars for information on how to get a vehicle history report, how to check for safety recalls, and other topics; and
- to ask for a Spanish Buyers Guide if the sale is conducted in Spanish; and
- to keep the Buyers Guide for reference after the sale.
If you conduct a used car transaction in Spanish, you must post a Spanish language Buyers Guide on the vehicle before you display or offer it for sale.
The Buyers Guide must be displayed prominently and conspicuously on or in a vehicle when a car is available for sale. This means it must be in plain view and both sides must be visible. You can hang the Guide from the rear-view mirror inside the car or on a side-view mirror outside the car. You also can place it under a windshield wiper. The Guide also can be attached to a side window. A Guide in a glove compartment, trunk or under the seat is not conspicuous because it is not in plain sight.
You may remove the Guide for a test drive, but you must replace it as soon as the test drive is over.
At the top of the Guide, fill in the vehicle make, model, model year, and vehicle identification number (VIN). Write in a dealer stock number if you wish.
On the back of the Guide, fill in the name and address of your dealership. Also fill in the name (or position) and the telephone number of the person the consumer should contact with complaints. You may use a rubber stamp or preprint your Guide with this information.
You may include a signature line on the Guide and you may ask the buyer to sign to acknowledge that he or she has received the Guide. If you opt for a signature line, you must include a disclosure near it that says: “I hereby acknowledge receipt of the Buyers Guide at the closing of this sale.” This language can be preprinted on the form. The signature line and the required disclosure must appear in the space provided for the name of the individual to be contacted in the event of complaints after the sale.
- The Buyers Guide has two versions: One says “As Is-No Dealer Warranty;” the other says “Implied Warranties Only.”
- As Is-No Dealer Warranty. If state law allows it, and you choose not to offer a warranty — written or implied — you must use the “As Is” version and check the box next to the heading “As Is-No Dealer Warranty” on the Guide.
- Implied Warranties Only. In states that limit or prohibit the elimination of implied warranties, you must use the “Implied Warranties Only” version and check the box next to the “Implied Warranties Only” if you don’t offer a written warranty.
- Warranty. If you offer the vehicle with an express warranty, you must check the box next to the heading “Warranty” and complete that section of the Guide. Warranties required by state law must be disclosed in this section. Your state Attorney General can tell you about state warranty requirements.
State Law. In some states, use of the “As Is-No Dealer Warranty” Buyers Guide may be legally sufficient to eliminate implied warranties. In other states “as is” sales are allowed only if specific action is taken or certain language is used. For example, some states may require you to eliminate implied warranties by using special language and/or a document other than the Guide.
If you’re not sure which version of the Buyers Guide you should use or if you have questions about state requirements, contact the FTC or your state Attorney General’s office.
Is the Warranty “Full” or “Limited”?
For a warranty to be considered “full:”
- Warranty service must be provided to anyone who owns the vehicle during the warranty period.
- Warranty service must be provided free of charge when necessary, even for services like removing and reinstalling a system covered by the warranty.
- The consumer must be able to choose either a replacement or a refund if the vehicle can’t be repaired after a reasonable number of tries.
- The consumer is not required to take any action to receive service, except to give notice that service is needed. Service must be rendered after notice unless the warrantor can demonstrate that it is reasonable to require consumers to do more than give notice.
- The length of implied warranties must not be limited.
The warranty is considered “limited” if any of these conditions doesn’t apply.
What Percentage of Costs Does the Warranty Cover?
Fill in the percentage of parts and labor costs covered by the warranty in the spaces provided. If a deductible applies to repairs made under the warranty, put an asterisk next to the number and explain the deductible in the “systems covered/duration” section. For example, “*A $50 deductible applies to each repair visit.”
What Systems Are Covered? For How Long?
There’s one column to list the systems covered, and another to list the length of the warranty for each system. In the left hand column, you must specify each system that’s covered by the warranty. The Rule prohibits the use of shorthand phrases such as “drive train” or “power train” because it’s not always clear what specific components are included in the “power train” or “drive train.”
In the right hand column, you must state the length of the warranty for each system. If all systems are covered for the same length of time, you may state the duration once.
What if the Manufacturer’s Warranty Still Applies?
If the manufacturer’s warranty hasn’t expired, you may disclose this fact by checking the box, “MANUFACTURER’S WARRANTY STILL APPLIES. The manufacturer’s original warranty has not expired on some components of the vehicle,” in the Non-Dealer Warranties for this Vehicle section of the Buyers Guide.
If the consumer must pay to get coverage under the manufacturer’s warranty, you may not check the “Warranty” box. Such coverage is considered a service contract. However, you may check the “Warranty” box if you pay for coverage from the manufacturer and the consumer doesn’t have to pay anything more than the price of the vehicle to get the coverage. If you provide a warranty in addition to the unexpired manufacturer’s warranty, explain the terms of your warranty on the Buyers Guide.
Where Should Negotiated Warranty Changes Be Included?
If you and the consumer negotiate changes in the warranty, the Buyers Guide must reflect the changes. For example, if you offer to cover 50 percent of the cost of parts and labor for certain repairs, but agree to cover 100 percent of the cost of parts and labor after negotiating with the customer, you must cross out the “50 percent” disclosure and write in “100 percent.” Similarly, if you first offer the vehicle “as is” but then agree to provide a warranty, you must cross out the “As Is-No Dealer Warranty” disclosure and complete the “Warranty” section of the Buyers Guide properly.
If you offer a service contract for repairs, check the box next to the words “Service Contract.” However, if your state regulates service contracts as the “business of insurance,” you don’t have to check this box. Check with your Attorney General or state insurance commissioner to find out if your state regulates service contracts as insurance.
You must give the buyer the original or a copy of the vehicle’s Buyers Guide at the sale. The Guide must reflect all final changes. If you include a signature line on your Buyers Guides, make sure the buyer signs the Guide that reflects all final changes.
If you offer a written warranty, or if the manufacturer’s warranty still applies, you also must comply with the Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act and other FTC Rules, including the “Warranty Disclosure Rule.” The Warranty Act contains provisions that establish consumers’ rights with respect to written warranties. For example, the Act prohibits you from eliminating implied warranties when you provide a written warranty.
The Warranty Disclosure Rule requires that you disclose certain information about the coverage of your warranty and consumers’ rights under state law. This information must be included in a single document that is clear and easy to read.
The warranty information you provide on the Buyers Guide is not sufficient to meet the requirements of the Warranty Disclosure Rule. Therefore, your written warranty and the Buyers Guide must be two separate documents.
Another federal rule — the FTC’s Rule on Pre-Sale Availability of Written Warranty Terms — requires that you display written warranties in close proximity to the vehicle or make them available to consumers, upon request, before they buy.
You also may be interested in A Businessperson’s Guide to Federal Warranty Law. It explains the Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act, the federal law governing warranties on consumer products.
What Disclosures Should I Make if I Offer a 50/50 Warranty or Another Type of Split Cost Warranty?
Split cost warranties are those under which the dealer pays less than 100% of the cost for a warranty repair. This type of warranty includes 50/50 warranties where the dealer pays 50% of the cost for a covered repair and the buyer pays the remaining 50%. Another type of split cost warranty is one under which the buyer pays a deductible amount and the dealer pays the remaining cost for the repair.
If you offer a split cost warranty that requires you to pay a percentage of the repair cost for covered repairs, you should include the following disclosures in your warranty document:
- The percentage of the total repair cost you will pay.
- The percentage of the total repair cost the buyer must pay.
- How the total cost of the repair will be determined. For example, your warranty might state: “The total cost of a warranty repair will be the retail price ABC motors charges for the job.” As another example, your warranty might state: “The total cost of a warranty repair will be determined by adding the dealer’s cost for parts to the labor cost. Labor will be billed at a rate of ________ per hour for the actual time required to complete the repair.” As a final example, your warranty might state: “If the work is done by an outside repair shop, total cost of a repair will be the price ABC Motors is charged by the outside shop. If the work is done by ABC Motors, the total cost of the repair will be the same price ABC Motors charges non-warranty customers for the same job.”
If your warranty requires buyers to pay a deductible, your warranty document should disclose the deductible amount and the details as to when and under what circumstances the deductible must be paid.
Dealers offering split cost warranties can require that buyers return to the dealer for warranty repairs. If your warranty includes this restriction, however, you should provide an estimate of the total repair cost before work is started. This will allow the buyer to decide whether to approve the repair or have the work done elsewhere.
Where Can I Get Copies of the Guides?
You can download the Buyers Guide from the FTC’s Business Center, or you can get Buyers Guides from business-form companies or trade associations. You also can generate them yourself on a computer. However, you must use the wording, type style, type sizes, and format specified in the Rule. You are not allowed to place any other wording or symbols (including logos) on the Buyers Guide. The Guides must be printed in 100% black ink on white paper cut to at least 11″ x 7 1/4.” These requirements cannot be modified in any way. You may use colored ink to fill in the blanks.
How Am I Doing?
- Do you complete a Buyers Guide properly for each used vehicle offered for sale?
- Do you post the Buyers Guide prominently and conspicuously on each used vehicle you offer for sale?
- If you choose to include a signature line for the buyer’s signature, do you include the following required disclosure language:
I hereby acknowledge receipt of the Buyers Guide
at the closing of this sale.
- Do you put the following required disclosure in your sales contract:
The information you see on the window form for this vehicle
is part of this contract. Information on the window form overrides
any contrary provisions in the contract of sale.
- Do you give the vehicle’s Buyers Guide or a copy to the purchaser at the time of sale and make sure it states the final negotiated warranty coverage accurately?
- If a sale is conducted in Spanish, do you use the Spanish language Buyers Guide?
- If you offer a written warranty, do you prepare a warranty document that complies with federal law? Is the warranty document available for examination by potential buyers?
Dealers who violate the Used Car Rule may be subject to penalties of up to $43,280 per violation in FTC enforcement actions. Many states have laws or regulations that are similar to the Used Car Rule. Some states incorporate the Used Car Rule by reference in their state laws. As a result, state and local law enforcement officials may have the authority to ensure that dealers post Buyers Guides and to fine them or sue them if they do not comply.
If you have questions about the Used Car Rule, contact the FTC and request a free copy of the Rule or staff compliance guidelines for the Used Car Rule; both documents explain some aspects of the Rule in more detail.
The FTC works for the consumer to prevent fraudulent, deceptive, and unfair business practices in the marketplace and to provide information to help consumers spot, stop, and avoid them. To file a complaint or to get free information on consumer issues, visit ftc.gov or call toll-free, 1-877-FTC-HELP (1-877-382-4357); TTY: 1-866-653-4261. The FTC enters consumer complaints into the Consumer Sentinel Network, a secure online database and investigative tool used by hundreds of civil and criminal law enforcement agencies in the U.S. and abroad.
[Note: Edited January 2020 to reflect Inflation-Adjusted Civil Penalty Maximums.]